1. adverb certainly; must; will; necessarily
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: 必 is used as an adverb before verbs and noun predicates in Literary Chinese (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 122). For example, 是故君子有大道,必忠信以得之 'Thus we see that the sovereign [junzi] has a great course to pursue. He must show entire self-devotion and sincerity to attain it.' (Book of Rites, Great Learning 禮記‧大學, trans. by Legge 1885; Guoyu '必' adv 1; Kroll 2015 '必' 1; NCCED '必' 1)
  2. auxiliary verb must
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: 必 is used as an auxiliary verb in this sense in Literary Chinese (Guoyu '必' v; Pulleyblank 1995, p. 122)
  3. adverb if; suppose
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 假设 or 如果 (Guoyu '必' adv 2; Kroll 2015 '必' 2)
  4. proper noun Bi
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Subdomain: Names , Concept: Surname 姓氏
    Notes: (Guoyu '必' n)
  5. adverb certainly; avaśyam
    Domain: Buddhism 佛教
    Notes: Sanskrit equivalent: avaśyam, Japanese: hitsu (BCSD '必', p. 466; MW 'avaśyam'; SH '必', p. 188; Unihan '必')

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