1. conjunction so as to / in order to
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In the sense of 因此 (Guoyu '以' conj 3; Rouzer 2007, p. 10; Unihan '以')
  2. preposition to use / to regard as
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: May be used as a coverb in this sense, in a serial verb construction. A second form is 以 A 为 B, 'regard A as B.' (Pulleyblank 1995, p. 49)
  3. verb to use / to grasp
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In Literary Chinese, 以 can be used as a main verb, 以 is a transitive verb with two objects. In this use, it has the form '以 A B', which means 'use A to do B'. It can also take the form 'B 以 A', which means the same thing. The object A is the instrument by which the action B is performed. For example, 杀人以梃 'to kill a person using a club.' (Guoyu '以' v 1; Pulleyblank 1995, p. 47, quote from Meng 1A/4)
  4. preposition according to
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In the sense of 按 (Guoyu '以' prep 2)
  5. preposition because of
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In the sense of 因为; may also be thought of as a coverb when used in this sense in Literary Chinese (Guoyu '以' prep. 1; Pulleyblank 1995, p. 162)
  6. preposition on a certain date
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes:
  7. conjunction and / as well as
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: (Guoyu '以' conj 4)
  8. verb to rely on
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 仰赖 (Guoyu '以' v 2)
  9. verb to regard
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 认为 (Guoyu '以' v 3)
  10. verb to be able to
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 能够 (Guoyu '以' v 4)
  11. verb to order / to command
    Domain: Literary Chinese 文言文
    Notes: In the sense of 令 (Guoyu '以' v 5)
  12. conjunction further / moreover
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In the sense of 而 or 且 (Guoyu '以' conj 1)
  13. auxiliary verb used after a verb
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In this usage 以 is placed after a verb without meaning (Guoyu '以' aux)
  14. adverb very
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In this usage 以 is an adverb with the same meaning 太 or 甚 (Guoyu '以' aux)
  15. adverb already
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In the sense of 已经 (Guoyu '以' aux)
  16. adverb increasingly
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In the sense of 愈益 (Guoyu '以' aux)
  17. noun a reason / a cause
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语
    Notes: In the sense of 缘故 (Guoyu '以' n 1)
  18. proper noun Israel
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Concept: Country 国家
    Notes: An abbreviation for 以色列 (Guoyu '以' n 2)
  19. proper noun Yi
    Domain: Modern Chinese 现代汉语 , Concept: Surname 姓氏
    Notes: (Guoyu '以' n 3)

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